Computer-Aided Thermodynamic Tables 2 (CATT2) provides you with a means to access various thermodynamic tables normally found in text or reference books. There is no need to interpolate values from a table. You simply enter a property value you want to evaluate, and let the computer do the work.The good things here is the software is a Windows application so it is more user friendly. Another advantage is the better visual steam or gas table that can show the point of the state.The CATT2 screen is divided into an upper and lower section. The upper section displays the values last evaluated and, in some cases, a graphical representation of those values. The lower section contains a spreadsheet-like log of all previous values evaluated for a particular substance. The sections are separated by a draggable bar, which allows you to view more or less of each section.You can evaluate all of the tables using one of four predefined sets of units. You can select units prior to performing any calculations, using Change Units from the menu or clicking the Units button.The tables are grouped as following :- Water - Refrigerants - Cryogenics- Air - Ideal Gases - Compressibility- PsychrometricsYou can access each group by clicking on the corresponding tabs, at the bottom of the display, or by selecting the group from the Tables menu.System Requirements :Windows (98/2000/XP). (I do not have any experiences using Vista...) DOWNLOAD : CATT.RAR
Introduction to engineering thermodynamics. Topics include units and measures, thermodynamic system, property, and surroundings, closed, open and isolated systems, first law of thermodynamics for closed systems including calculations of boundary work and heat transfer interactions, properties of pure substances including determination of thermodynamic state using the state postulate, introduction to thermodynamic tables, ideal gases, first law of thermodynamics for open systems, second law of thermodynamics, absolute temperature scale, heat engine and refrigeration cycles, Carnot cycle, Kelvin-Planck and Claussius statements of the second law, determination of allowable, reversible, and impossible thermodynamic processes and cycles using the second law, introduction to entropy as a thermodynamic property using the second law, calculation of entropy change and entropy generation for closed and open systems. Introduction to isentropic processes and isentropic efficiencies of devices.
Introduction and analysis of different thermodynamic cycles and factors impacting these cycles. Topics include thermodynamic cycle analysis, thermodynamics of non-reacting and reacting mixtures, power cycles: basic considerations, gas power cycles, vapor and combined power cycles, gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and air conditioning, and chemical reactions from thermodynamics point of view.
Energy sources, combustion systems, fuels and emissions, combustion thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, 1D reactors, combustion phenomena (ignition, flashback, blow-off, deflagration, detonation, etc.), laminar and turbulent premixed and non-premixed flames, and heterogeneous combustion.
Description of a generic vehicle development process. Full vehicle concepts. Performance and fuel efficiency calculations. Fundamentals of internal combustion engines, thermodynamic principles, vibrations. Transmission and drive train design.
Abstract -An evaluation of the effect of vapor-liquid equilibrium experimental data on the design of separation sequences by distillation was done using computer simulation. Separation of a mixture of acetone-chloroform-benzene was chosen as an example problem. Two sequences were compared. To quantify the thermodynamic data uncertainties for each sequence two sets of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data were chosen. These two sets of data were used to generate simulation cases as in classical two-level factorial design of experiments. A third set of binary vapor-liquid experimental data allows comparing phase liquid models. For the two-column sequence, analysis done to each column alone or to the whole sequence gave the same results. In the three-column sequence, results were different and simulation of the whole sequence gave a complete different account that simulation of each column alone.
The design of chemical processes involves computer simulations. The results of these simulations are strongly dependent on the thermodynamic models for the phase equilibrium. While proper choice of the thermodynamic model is important, the uncertainties in experimental data that are used to regress the model parameters are also significant. Techniques for assessing these effects are required for improving thermodynamic modeling, designing experiments and selecting data. The effect of property inaccuracies on process design is therefore of great importance in the chemical industry. Studies of this problem have been reported earlier (Streich and Kistenmacher, 1979; Nelson et al., 1983; Hernandez et al., 1984). More recent studies have analyzed the effect of model (Mandagarán et al., 1999) and of thermodynamic data (Whiting et al., 1999) on calculated process performance. On the other hand new design methods have been introduced that allows screening of distillation sequences (Thong and Jobson, 2001; Brüggemann and Marquardt, 2004; Liu et al., 2005).
The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of the uncertainties of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data on the design of the separation process of a mixture of acetone, chloroform, and benzene. Through a series of case studies we present how thermodynamic models and uncertainties of the thermodynamic data impact the design of the process. The case studies belong to two distillation sequences to obtain benzene, acetone, and chloroform under certain specifications from a ternary mixture of all three components.
16. Whiting, W.B., V.R. Vasquez and M.M. Meerschaert, "Techniques for assessing the effects of uncertainties in thermodynamic models and data", Fluid Phase Equilib., 158-160, 627-641 (1999). [ Links ]
Selection of optimal antisense constructs is still a problem.Among a huge number of antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ONs) only a small pieceshow inhibitory efficacy. We want to develop an enhanced strategy forspecific selection of effective AS-ONs based on prediction of secondarystructure of the target messenger RNA (mRNA) and analysis of thermodynamicproperties of the mRNA/AS-ON hybrid. Numerous AS-ONs targeted on human tissuefactor (TF) mRNA were investigated to evaluate the relevance of differentthermodynamic and structural properties on inhibitory efficacy. Cellviability, TF protein and TF mRNA were determined after transfection ofbladder cancer cell line J82. Inhibitory efficacy was related to GC content,target region within the TF mRNA and stability of the mRNA/AS-ON hybrid oraffinity of the AS-ON to the target mRNA. We found effective AS-ONs targetedon translated region or 3'-untranslated region of TF RNA. We alsodetected a great correlation between inhibitory efficacy and GC content aswell as stability of the mRNA/AS-ON hybrid.
Antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ONs) are single-strandeddeoxynucleotides (typically 15-20 nucleotides in length), which arecomplementary to a target messenger RNA (mRNA). Hybridization viaWatson-Crick base pairing can result in specific inhibition of geneexpression. The level of target protein is reduced by steric hindrance oftranslation or by activation of RNase H and degradation of target mRNA(Crooke, 2004a; Coppelli and Grandis, 2005; Chan et al., 2006). AS-ONs havebeen used widely for selective downregulation of disease-related target genesand some AS-ONs have entered clinical trials (Crooke, 2004b; Gleave andMonia, 2005; Verreault et al., 2006; Forster and Schwenzer, 2008).Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of accessible target sites in human TFmRNA is still missing. Stephens and Rivers (1997) tested one AS-ON targetedon the mRNA of the rare tripeptide motif Trp-Lys-Ser, which had beenpredicted as a functional motif involved in the interaction with serineproteases (Andrews, 1991; Andrews et al., 1991). Today it seems generallyaccepted, that the efficacy of AS-ONs depends on local structure of thetarget mRNA, chemical properties like modifications of the backbone, andbiological system of interest. Mainly single-stranded regions seem to bepotential targets for successful AS-ON treatment (Chan et al., 2006).Nevertheless, even with careful design only a small portion of AS-ONssuppress the target mRNA efficiently (Far et al., 2001). Until now, variousexperimental and theoretical approaches exist to identify accessible localtarget sites. On one hand, computer-aided analysis of the target mRNA isindeed fast and economic and the whole target mRNA can be searched forpotential targets but tertiary structure and interactions with proteins weredisregarded. On the other hand, experimental methods are time-consuming andexpensive. So, often only a part of the target mRNA is investigated to lookfor accessible target sites (Bo et al., 2006; Lutzelberger and Kjems, 2006).
In this study, we used computational approach to predict secondarystructure of TF mRNA. Identifying local single-stranded motifs we developeddifferent AS-ONs to one motif. The AS-ONs were analyzed in cell culture toverify their inhibitory potential. We used bladder cancer cell line J82 asmodel for investigation. First, J82 showed a high expression of TF andsecond, in potential animal experiments AS-ONs can be applied easily byirrigation the bladder. We evaluated the efficacy at the point of cellviability, and the reduction of TF protein and TF mRNA. For development of anoptimal method for selection of AS-ONs, we analyzed coherences betweeninhibitory efficacy and GC content of the AS-ONs, hybridization position ofan AS-ON within the single-stranded motif and calculated thermodynamic data. 2b1af7f3a8