A.1.1 Ions are ionized compounds, wherein ions are surrounded by electrons. In anionic compounds, the electrons are on the anion, and the cations are on the non-ionic molecule. In a cationic compound, the electrons are on the cation, and the anions are on the non-ionic molecule.
A.1.2 Ions can exist in different forms, depending on the type of ion. For example, NaCl and NaOH are known as salt, and can exist in the form of a crystal or a solution. In a solution, ions do not form the bonds that are found in the crystal. Ions can have the same chemical form, known as isomorphous, or they can have a different chemical form, known as polymorphic.
A.1.3 Isomorphous ions have similar chemical properties, but the properties differ from one to the other. Isomorphous ions have the same chemical formula but with different ionic radii. For example, sodium and potassium are isomorphous, with the same chemical formula Na+, and they have a similar physical appearance. Sodium and potassium are isomorphous, with the same chemical formula Na+, and they have a similar physical appearance.
A.1.4 Polymorphic ions can exist in different crystal forms, such as one, two, three, four, five and six, and they have different physical properties. Polymorphic ions can have the same chemical formula, but they can have different properties due to the structure of the ion. For example,.
II.1.2 Ionization of Non-ionic Compounds
Ionization of the non-ionic molecules of the compounds may depend on the pH and the water content. The greater the proportion of water, the higher the number of molecules that will be ionized. Some ionization may occur even when the compounds are at their lowest pH, due to the presence of water (or water of crystallization) that is not in chemical equilibrium with the aqueous phase. A given number of positive charges will be added to a non-ionic molecule when the number of ions in the water exceeds the number of bonds of hydration (i.e., ions that are associated with water molecules and thereby not directly associated with the non-ionic compound). For example, if there are four water molecules, each with a charge of −1 (i.e., a charge of − 0b46394aab