Power System Analysis By N V Ramana
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What is more concerning than the number of pending cases is the fact that 492 Constitution Bench matters, involving 53 main cases, also remain pending. These are matters that entail deep analysis of crucial questions of law which are likely to impact citizens and institutions across the country for years and decades to come.
Economic operation: Review of thermal units, lambda iteration method, first order gradient method, base point and participation factors. Generation with limited supply, take or pay fuel contract, composite generation production cost function, solution of gradient search techniques. Hard limits and slack variables. hydro-thermal coordination, long range and short range scheduling, scheduling problems, scheduling energy, short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem, pumped storage hydro plants, pumped storage hydro scheduling λ -γ iteration, fast scheduling techniques. Inter change evaluation and power pools, economy interchange evaluation with unit commitments, types of interchange, energy banking.
Power system security: system monitoring, contingency analysis, security constrained optimal power flow, factors affecting power system security, advanced security monitoring. Transient stability analysis (multi machine system), small signal stability and power system oscillations, voltage stability, direct stability methods, power system stabilizers.
Raman Spectroscopy is a non-destructive chemical analysis technique which provides detailed information about chemical structure, phase and polymorphy, crystallinity and molecular interactions. It is based upon the interaction of light with the chemical bonds within a material.
A Raman microscope couples a Raman spectrometer to a standard optical microscope, allowing high magnification visualization of a sample and Raman analysis with a microscopic laser spot. Raman micro-analysis is easy: simply place the sample under the microscope, focus, and make a measurement.
A true confocal Raman microscope can be used for the analysis of micron size particles or volumes. It can even be used for the analysis of different layers in a multilayered sample (e.g., polymer coatings), and of contaminants and features beneath the surface of a transparent sample (e.g., impurities within glass, and fluid/gas inclusions in minerals).
The microscope was initially integrated with the scanning double grating monochromator (c. 1972). When high sensitivity, low noise multichannel detectors became available (mid 1980s), triple stage spectrographs were introduced with the microscope as an integrated component. In 1990 the holographic notch filters were demonstrated to provide superior laser rejection so that a Raman microscope could be built on a single stage spectrograph and provide enhanced sensitivity. Compared with the original scanning double monochromators, collection times for comparable spectra (resolution and signal to noise for a given laser power) is now at least two to three orders of magnitude higher than what it was 35 years ago.
These core innovations have been pioneered in the HORIBA Scientific labs in northern France by the scientists and engineers who were trained in Professor Delhaye's laboratory, taking advantage of hardware as it came available. This included holographic gratings, notch filters, air-cooled lasers, multichannel detectors (first intensified diode arrays and then CCDs), high power computers, and associated developments in electronics and software.
More recent developments in the Raman technique include SRS (Stimulated Raman Scattering), SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering), TERS (tip enhanced Raman scattering), integration with electron microscopes and atomic force microscopes, hybrid single bench systems (e.g., Raman-PL, Epifluorescence, Photocurrent), Transmission Raman (for true bulk material analysis).
Although gases can be analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, the concentration of molecules in a gas is typically very low, so the measurement is often more challenging. Usually specialized equipment such as higher powered lasers and long path length sample cells are necessary. In some cases where gas pressures are high (such as gas inclusions in minerals) standard Raman instrumentation can easily be used.
Structural analysis via spectroscopic measurement of rotational and vibrational modes is of increasing interest for many applications, since these spectra can reveal unique and important structural and behavioral information about a wide range of materials.
The primary role of a judge of the Supreme Court is to expound and lay down the law for all other courts and citizens of the country to follow. In this, the role of the Chief Justice of India (CJI) is pivotal as he is the head of the judiciary who can exercise a plenitude of power that no other judge in the country can wield.
Constitution bench cases such as the abrogation of Article 370, the law to provide for reservation for the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS), and passage of Aadhaar and PMLA as money bills, remained untouched. Justice Ramana fixed May 11 for listing of the matter involving the power tussle between the Centre and the Delhi government before a constitution bench, which has not sat to date. Earlier this week, he fixed the case on the Maharashtra political crisis case for Thursday, but again, the bench never sat. A bunch of cases challenging the sedition law in India was also directed by him to be listed in the second week of July but did not come up till his retirement.
This paper reports the effect of Magnesium chloride (MgCl2) on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. The OPC concrete was produced with MgCl2 dosage of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/lit and deionised water was used in concrete mix (M20 & M50). In addition to this, control specimens were prepared with deionised water (without MgCl2) for comparison. The compressive and tensile strengths were evaluated for 28 and 90 days. The results show that, as the MgCl2 concentration increases, the compression and tensile strengths decrease. The X-ray diffraction analysis for concrete has been carried out at 1.5 g/lit concentration.
The bench came to the conclusion that the following revision in the tender allotment amounted to an abuse of bureaucratic power. While dismissing CIDCO's appeal against the Bombay High Court verdict, the court stated that after conducting a tender process and receiving money, the government backtracked, resulting in the current lengthy battle. The bench observed that the CIDCO order canceling the allocation on "hyper-technical grounds" could not be upheld because it violated the "doctrine of fairness"; the reasons provided therein are illogical and based on extraneous factors.
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